Геоинформационные технологии и управление в кризисных ситуациях
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ГЕОИНФОРМАЦИОННЫЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ И УПРАВЛЕНИЕ В КРИЗИСНЫХ СИТУАЦИЯХ
Ганноверский университет им. Лейбница, Nienburger Str. 1, D-30 167 Ганновер, Германия, засл. профессор, почетный профессор СГГА, тел/факс: 0049−511−762−2483, e-mail:
konecny@ipi. uni-hannover. de
Геоинформационные технологии предлагают превосходные инструментальные средства для решения проблем, связанных со стихийными бедствиям. Бедствия нельзя предотвратить, но они могут быть прогнозируемы, наблюдаемы и оценены. Уже доказана эффективность дистанционного зондирования.
Для решения проблем, связанных с оказанием помощи при стихийных бедствиях, предлагаются две модели:
1. Государственное агентство, имеющее доступ к геоданным, включая своевременные спутниковые изображения, сильную финансовую, техническую и организационную базу.
2. Для стран, не имеющих такую инфраструктуру, отдел ООН по вопросам космического пространства вместе с международными космическими агентствами предлагает быстрый и свободный доступ к данным по оказанию помощи при стихийных бедствиях.
Ключевые слова: стихийные бедствия, чрезвычайные ситуации, наводнения, цунами, космические агентства, спутниковые изображения.
GEOINFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT
Leibniz University Hannover, Institute for Photogrammetry and Geoinformation, Nienburger Str. 1, D-30 167 Hannover, Germany, Emeritus Professor, Honorary Professor of SSGA, office/fax: 49 511−762−2483, e-mail: konecny@ipi. uni-hannover. de
Geoinformation technologies offer excellent tools for problems associated with disasters. Disasters are unavoidable, but they may be predicted, monitored and assessed. Satellite remote sensing has proved to be an effective tool.
For the problems associated with disaster relief two models have proved to be effective:
1. A national agency, which has access to geodata including timely satellite images and possesses strong financial, technical and organizational capabilities
2. For those countries, which lack such an infrastructure, the United Nations Office of Outer Space Affairs in liaison with the international space agencies offers voluntary quick data access for disaster relief.
Key words: disasters, emergencies, floods, tsunamis, space agencies, satellite images. Introduction
As a representative of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing I consider myself part of the science oriented and technical geoinformation community, which in other parts of the world is also called geoinformatics or geomatics. I follow the rapid technological advances and think about opportunities in
my professional field to apply these technologies to combat urgent problems of society.
One of these problem areas is disaster management. Natural and human caused disasters frequently occur, and the technologies in my field offer opportunities, not to prevent disasters, but to make their impacts less severe for society.
Possible Actors in Disaster Management
Disaster management may rely on scientific information to predict disasters and their possible mitigation, but it is a matter of management activity requiring decisions and the financial, technical and political infrastructure to become effective.
My first encounter as a member of the geoinformation community with disasters was with the floods of the river Oder (Odra), which severely affected the neighboring countries of Poland, the Czech Republic and Germany. At that time flood mitigation was handicapped by the fact, that separate country administrations did not manage a joint action. As members of the European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories EARSeL some Polish, Czech and German representatives met and made a joint proposal to the European Union for a study on how the use of remote sensing could improve the coordination between the countries to predict, monitor, mitigate and assess damages of multinational flood in that region. The proposal was considered as excellent, but it was given to the European Joint Research Center for implementation, and we did not become involved. We were not told the reasons for the rejection of our proposal, but we guessed, that we would have needed political power to implement such a proposal, which the scientific community did not have.
Through EARSeL I had a second encounter for disaster management via the Council of Europe as a technical reviewer for the support given to the Russian Emergency Ministry EMERCOM. I was impressed by my visits to the Ministry. They had own meteorological monitoring systems using NOAA and Russian meteorological satellites. They had access to detailed map content in digital form from the former Roskartografia. And they conducted impact analyses for possible disaster situations. For mitigation of actual disasters they were directly linked with the Russian Army.
Of interest were also the EMERCOM studies on the frequency of disasters for different regions of the Russian Federation. It was documented, that at least half of the actual disasters in Russia were caused by humans. Another interesting aspect was the issue of training manuals for disaster relief to the public.
To me this appeared to be the ideal model for disaster prediction, preparedness and mitigation for a large country. This is a capability, as history proved, which was not available in the USA during the New Orleans flood and in Japan for the recent Tsunami.
It was interesting to observe, that for the Indian Ocean Tsunami, a few years before, India refused to accept international aid, since it was felt there, that there exist own national capabilities for the mitigation of the disaster. Sri Lanka, Thailand and Indonesia did not have the infrastructure to do it without international help.
This apparently led to the start of international efforts. Germany, for example, financed a sophisticated Tsunami information system for Indonesia. But at UN
Conferences it was only the Germans, who would talk about it, and not the Indonesians, which most likely could not maintain such a complex system.
But more effective, than bilateral efforts between two countries was the approach via the United Nations. The UN Office for Outer Space Affairs in Vienna has managed to organize a very effective voluntary collaboration with the World'-s Space Agencies. When UNOOSA declares a sudden catastrophic event a disaster, then the Space Agencies will target space data acquisition or rapidly prepare image maps for disaster relief.
As one of the earth observation experts at the German Space Agency DLR in Oberpfaffenhofen, Dr. Reinartz, is a Honorary Professor and lecturer at the University in Hannover, we are continuously informed about their involvement in aiding disaster relief, such as for the Indian Ocean Tsunami, the New Orleans Flood, the Wenchuan Earthquake in China, the Haiti earthquake, the Fukushima disaster in Japan and others.
Both models for disaster relief, at EMERCOM and through UN-OOSA and the International Space Agencies are highly effective. In the first model (EMERCOM) geoinformation technologies are used as an integrated work flow package. This is needed for the entire chain of relief operations in the disaster areas.
The second model (UN-OOSA) concentrates one the globally applicable part of disaster monitoring through timely space data acquisition, which is technologically not accessible to most third world countries.
© G. Konecny, 2012